어제(3월17일) 통계청이 '2월 고용동향'을 내놓았습니다.
실업률은 4.9%로 1월(5.0%)보다 미미하게 하락했지만, 지난해까지 3%대 실업률을 유지하던 수준에서 여전히 높은 상태를 유지하고 있습니다. 또 실업자 수는 116만 9000명으로 지난해 같은 달에 비해 24만4000명 증가했습니다. 또 15~29세 청년층 실업률은 10.0%를 기록해  두 자릿수로 치솟아 청년 실업난이 갈수록 심각해지는 것으로 나타났습니다.


사실 이 같은 공식 통계 이면의 고용상황은 훨씬 더 열악합니다. 이에 대해서는 제가 여러 차례 설명한 바 있지만, 오늘은 고용의 질에 대해 간단히 말씀드릴까 합니다. 아래 <도표1>에서 36시간 미만 취업자수와 36시간 이상 취업자수의 추이를 한 번 살펴보시기 바랍니다. 18시간 미만과 36시간 미만 불완전 취업자 수가 가파르게 늘어 2월에는 35.2%까지 치솟았습니다. 반면 36시간 이상 취업자수도 2000년대 초반 90%에 육박했으나 지금은 추세적으로 85% 수준까지 내려왔고, 단기적이지만 2월에는 62.0%까지 떨어졌습니다.


<도표1>



계절조정을 하면 상대적으로 진폭은 작아집니다만, 아무리 단기적이라고 하더라도 36시간 미만 취업자 수가 35.2%까지 치솟는다는 것은 정상적인 고용구조라면 이해하기 어렵습니다.  물론 해가 바뀌면서 단기근로 등으로 계약이 끝난 사람들이 잠시 단시간 일자리를 하는 것으로 보더라도 너무나 높은 수치입니다. 그만큼 한국의 고용구조가 불안하다는 것을 단적으로 보여주는 것입니다.

이는 국내 고용이 2000년대 이후 꾸준히 비정규직을 양산하는 구조였고, 상당수의 취업자들이 갈수록 단시간 근로와 같은 불완전 고용 상황에 놓여 있다는 것을 강력히 시사합니다. 이에 따라 <도표2>에서 보는 것처럼 주당 평균 취업시간이 추세적으로 2000년대 초반 주당 50시간을 넘다가 최근에는 45시간까지 떨어지고 있는 것입니다. 단기적으로 올 2월에는 38.1%까지 줄어들었습니다. 주5일제의 확산만으로는 도저히 설명하기 어려운 정도로 주당 취업시간이 급감하고 있는 것입니다.

                                           
                                           <도표2>


이를 통해 알 수 있는 것은 시간이 갈수록 제대로 된 일자리가 줄어들면서 많은 국민들이 이른바 '알바' 자리와 같은 불완전 취업 상태에 놓여 있는 것입니다.  


한국 경제는 지난 2000년대 이후 그렇지 않아도 치솟은 부동산가격으로 땅값은 금값이 됐지만, 정리해고 남발과 비정규직 양산 등으로 사람값은 똥값이 됐습니다. 부동산 버블의 붕괴는 지나치게 부풀어오른 땅값을 내리고 상대적으로 사람 값을 올려야 한다는 시장의 자연스러운 반응입니다. 또한 당위적으로는 그 같은 경제구조를 만들기 위한 기회로 삼아야 합니다. 세계 각국 선진국의 인건비가 비싼 것이 괜히 비싼 것이 아닙니다. 높은 인건비에서 양질의 노동력과 생산성이 나오는 것이고, 그 같은 생산성을 바탕으로 향상된 임금 소득이 내수기반의 강화로 이어지는 것입니다.

그런데 현 정부는 이 같은 메커니즘을 이해하지 못하고 부동산 값은 모든 수단을 동원해서 떠받치고 가뜩이나 똥값인 사람 값은 낮추기 위해 혈안이 돼왔습니다. 그러면서 겉으로 드러나는 실업률을 낮추기 위해 '희망근로사업'과 같은 사업이나 대규모 토건사업 추진을 통해 단기 일자리와 일용직만을 양산해왔습니다. 그러면서도 경제위기 속에서도 실업률을 3%대로 유지했다며 떠벌려 왔습니다. 하지만 그것은 눈 가리고 아웅하는 작태일 뿐입니다. 다수의 국민들의 실제 일자리가 이렇게 불안해지고 있는데, 수치놀음을 하고 여론조작을 하고 있는 것입니다. 현실의 고용사정부터 제대로 인식하려 하지 않는 정부에게 무슨 일자리 창출을 기대하겠습니까? 안타까울 뿐입니다.



모든 사람이 땀흘린만큼 제대로 대접받는 건전한 민주주의 시장경제 건설을 위한 좀더 의미 있는 토론과 참여를 원하시는 분들은 김광수경제연구소포럼(http://cafe.daum.net/kseriforum)을 방문해주십시오.

by 선대인 2010. 3. 18. 12:14
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